Folegandros, as the rest of Greece, has a rich history that begins from the prehistoric era, it continues with a lot of colonists - conquerors and reaches to its integration to the Greek State in 1828.

In the ancient time, Folegandros was called Polikandros and was the worship place of Apollo and Artemis. Its history begins in the prehistoric years, something that is confirmed by the remains of the settlement that have been found on the north edge of the island and as first citizens are mentioned the Carians and then the Phoenicians. Then followed the Cretans from whom - and more specifically the son of Minoa, Folegandros - has taken its present name.

In 425 B.C. was conquered by the Athenians and became their vassal. The Romans used the island as place of exile. Then followed the Venetian conquerors. It was the period of the Frankish occupation when Folegandros belonged to the Duchy of the Aegean Sea. In 1212 Marcus Sanudus - founder of the Duchy - conquered it and he was the one that built the medieval castle, as a big fortress against the pirates.

Folegandros remained under the occupation of the Venetians until 1566 when it was desolated by Turkish Pirates who conquered it definitively from 1617 to 1821 (in 1715 was plundered and completely desolated by the Pasha Tzanoum Hotza). For about 4 years (1770-1774) it was under the Russian dominance until 1828 when it was integrated in the Greek State.